About 40,000 of the estimated 700,000 to one million members of the Nilotic ethnic group of Acholi live in Eastern Equatoria.The Acholi speak a Western Nilotic language that belongs to the Luo language family. The Acholi people are closely related to the Lango, Alur, Luo and Shilluk . Other names for the Acholi include Acoli, Atscholi, Asjob, Gan ,Gea,Makuschuru, and Shuli .

The settlement area of the Acholi encompasses approximately 30,000 square kilometers along the slopes and in the valleys of the Imatong Mountains and the Acholi Hills and mainly located in Northern Uganda (“Acholiland “).  A small part is also located north of the border in the South Sudanese state of Eastern Equatoria, especially in the Magwi (Magwe) county. The Acholi region is suspected of holding valuable mineral resources, such as gold and chromite.  The Acholi people in South Sudan are calling themselves sometimes “Doc Acoli” in order to distinguish themselves from the “Log Acoli ” in Uganda.